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The special feature of this Treaty is that while it is a bilateral Treaty between two States, to which the rules of international law apply and which like any other international treaty possesses validity, it is between two States that are parts of a still existing, albeit incapable of action as not being reorganized, comprehensive State of the Whole of Germany with a single body politic.
From the beginning, the newly formed GDR tried to establish its own separate identity. The SED destroyed a number of symbolic relics of the former Prussian aristocracy: In May , following widespread public anger over the faking of results of local government elections, many citizens applied for exit visas or left the country contrary to GDR laws.
Although formally the Hungarian frontier was still closed, many East Germans took the opportunity to enter the country via Czechoslovakia , and then make the illegal crossing from Hungary into Austria and West Germany beyond.
The major turning point in the exodus came on September 10th, when the Hungarian Foreign Minister Gyula Horn announced that his country would no longer restrict movement from Hungary into Austria.
Within two days 22, East Germans crossed into Austria, with tens of thousands following in the coming weeks.
Many others demonstrated against the ruling party , especially in the city of Leipzig. The Leipzig demonstrations became a weekly occurrence, showing a turnout of 10, people at the first demonstration on October 2nd and peaking at an estimated , by the end of the month.
The massive demonstration in East Berlin on November 4th coincided with Czechoslovakia formally opening its border into West Germany. To try and stem the outward flow of the population, the SED proposed a concessionary law loosening restrictions on travel.
On 9 November , a few sections of the Berlin Wall were opened, resulting in thousands of East Germans crossing freely into West Berlin and West Germany for the first time in nearly 30 years.
Krenz resigned a few days later, and the SED opened negotiations with the leaders of the incipient Democratic movement, Neues Forum , to schedule free elections and begin the process of democratization.
As part of this, the SED eliminated the clause in the East German constitution guaranteeing the Communists leadership of the state.
This was approved in the Volkskammer on December 1, by a vote of to 0. East Germany held its last elections in March The five original East German states that had been abolished in the redistricting were restored.
On 1 July a currency union preceded the political union: The great economic and socio-political inequalities between the former Germanies required government subsidy for the full integration of the Democratic Republic of Germany into the German Federal Republic.
Because of the resulting deindustrialization in the former East Germany, the causes of the failure of this integration continue to be debated.
Some western commentators claim that the depressed eastern economy is a natural aftereffect of a demonstrably inefficient command economy.
But many East German critics contend that the shock-therapy style of privatization , the artificially high rate of exchange offered for the Ostmark , and the speed with which the entire process was implemented did not leave room for East German enterprises to adapt.
There were four periods in East German political history. However, the SED quickly transformed into a full-fledged Communist party as the more independent-minded Social Democrats were pushed out.
As in other Soviet-bloc countries, non-communist political parties were allowed. Nevertheless, every political party in the GDR was forced to join the National Front of Democratic Germany , a broad coalition of parties and mass political organisations, including:.
The member parties were almost completely subservient to the SED, and had to accept its " leading role " as a condition of their existence.
However, the parties did have representation in the Volkskammer and received some posts in the government. Another society of note was the Society for German-Soviet Friendship.
The Left Party continues to be a political force in many parts of Germany, albeit drastically less powerful than the SED.
This was primarily a result of emigration—about one quarter of East Germans left the country before the Berlin Wall was completed in ,  and after that time, East Germany had very low birth rates,  except for a recovery in the s when the birth rate in East Germany was considerably higher than in West Germany.
The western parts of two provinces, Pomerania and Lower Silesia , the remainder of which were annexed by Poland, remained in the GDR and were attached to Mecklenburg and Saxony, respectively.
The new Bezirke , named after their district centres, were as follows: Despite the city as a whole being legally under the control of the Allied Control Council , and diplomatic objections of the Allied governments, the GDR administered the Bezirk of Berlin as part of its territory.
The government of East Germany had control over a large number of military and paramilitary organisations through various ministries. Chief among these was the Ministry of National Defence.
Defining what was a military force and what was not is a matter of some dispute. It was an all volunteer force until an eighteen-month conscription period was introduced in The border troops of the Eastern sector were originally organised as a police force, the Deutsche Grenzpolizei, similar to the Bundesgrenzschutz in West Germany.
It was controlled by the Ministry of the Interior. In , it was separated from the NVA, but it remained under the same ministry.
At its peak, it numbered approximately 47, men. These units were, like the Kasernierte Volkspolizei, equipped as motorised infantry, and they numbered between 12, and 15, men.
The Ministry of State Security Stasi included the Felix Dzerzhinsky Guards Regiment , which was mainly involved with facilities security and plain clothes events security.
They were the only part of the feared Stasi that was visible to the public, and so were very unpopular within the population.
The Stasi numbered around 90, men, the Guards Regiment around 11,, men. The Kampfgruppen der Arbeiterklasse combat groups of the working class numbered around , for much of their existence, and were organised around factories.
They received their training from the Volkspolizei and the Ministry of the Interior. Membership was voluntary, but SED members were required to join as part of their membership obligation.
In the s, East German leaders acknowledged that former construction soldiers were at a disadvantage when they rejoined the civilian sphere.
The East German state promoted an anti-imperialist line that was reflected in all its media and all the schools. Popular reaction to these measures was mixed, and Western media penetrated the country both through cross-border television and radio broadcasts from West Germany and from the American propaganda network Radio Free Europe.
Dissidents, particularly professionals, sometimes fled to West Germany, which was relatively easy before the construction of the Berlin Wall in After receiving wider international diplomatic recognition in —73, the GDR began active cooperation with Third World socialist governments and national liberation movements.
In friendship treaties were signed with Angola, Mozambique and Ethiopia. It was estimated that altogether, — DDR military and security experts were dispatched to Africa.
In addition, representatives from African and Arab countries and liberation movements underwent military training in the GDR.
The East German economy began poorly because of the devastation caused by the Second World War; the loss of so many young soldiers, the disruption of business and transportation, and finally reparations owed to the USSR.
The Red Army dismantled and transported to Russia the infrastructure and industrial plants of the Soviet Zone of Occupation.
By the early s, the reparations were paid in agricultural and industrial products; and Lower Silesia , with its coal mines and Szczecin , an important natural port, were given to Poland by the decision of Stalin.
In , collective state enterprises earned In , the average annual growth of the GDP was approximately five percent. This made East German economy the richest in all of the Soviet Bloc until after the fall of Communism in the country.
Notable East German exports were photographic cameras , under the Praktica brand; automobiles under the Trabant , Wartburg , and the IFA brands; hunting rifles, sextants , typewriters and wristwatches.
Until the s, East Germans endured shortages of basic foodstuffs such as sugar and coffee. East Germans with friends or relatives in the West or with any access to a hard currency and the necessary Staatsbank foreign currency account could afford Western products and export-quality East German products via Intershop.
Consumer goods also were available, by post, from the Danish Jauerfood , and Genex companies. The government used money and prices as political devices, providing highly subsidised prices for a wide range of basic goods and services, in what was known as "the second pay packet".
For the consumer, it led to the substitution of GDR money with time, barter, and hard currencies. The socialist economy became steadily more dependent on financial infusions from hard-currency loans from West Germany.
East Germans, meanwhile, came to see their soft currency as worthless relative to the Deutsche Mark DM. Many western commentators have maintained that loyalty to the SED was a primary criterion for getting a good job, and that professionalism was secondary to political criteria in personnel recruitment and development.
They numbered more than , by Many, such as future politician Zeca Schall who emigrated from Angola in as a contract worker stayed in Germany after the Wende.
Religion became contested ground in the GDR, with the governing Communists promoting state atheism , although some people remained loyal to Christian communities.
In , the renowned philosophical theologian, Paul Tillich , claimed that the Protestant population in East Germany had the most admirable Church in Protestantism, because the Communists there had not been able to win a spiritual victory over them.
When it first came to power, the Communist party asserted the compatibility of Christianity and Marxism and sought Christian participation in the building of socialism.
At first the promotion of Marxist-Leninist atheism received little official attention. In the mids, as the Cold War heated up, atheism became a topic of major interest for the state, in both domestic and foreign contexts.
University chairs and departments devoted to the study of scientific atheism were founded and much literature scholarly and popular on the subject was produced.
Official and scholarly attention to atheism renewed beginning in , though this time with more emphasis on scholarship and on the training of cadres than on propaganda.
Throughout, the attention paid to atheism in East Germany was never intended to jeopardise the cooperation that was desired from those East Germans who were religious.
East Germany, historically, was majority Protestant primarily Lutheran from the early stages of the Protestant Reformation onwards. Between and the leadership of the East German Lutheran churches gradually changed its relations with the state from hostility to cooperation.
The church adopted an attitude of confrontation and distance toward the state. Around this began to develop into a more neutral stance accommodating conditional loyalty.
The government was no longer regarded as illegitimate; instead, the church leaders started viewing the authorities as installed by God and, therefore, deserving of obedience by Christians.
But on matters where the state demanded something which the churches felt was not in accordance with the will of God, the churches reserved their right to say no.
There were both structural and intentional causes behind this development. Structural causes included the hardening of Cold War tensions in Europe in the mids, which made it clear that the East German state was not temporary.
The loss of church members also made it clear to the leaders of the church that they had to come into some kind of dialogue with the state.
The intentions behind the change of attitude varied from a traditional liberal Lutheran acceptance of secular power to a positive attitude toward socialist ideas.
Manfred Stolpe became a lawyer for the Brandenburg Protestant Church in before taking up a position at church headquarters in Berlin.
In he helped found the Bund der Evangelischen Kirchen in der DDR BEK , where he negotiated with the government while at the same time working within the institutions of this Protestant body.
He won the regional elections for the Brandenburg state assembly at the head of the SPD list in Stolpe remained in the Brandenburg government until he joined the federal government in Apart from the Protestant state churches German: The smaller Roman Catholic Church in eastern Germany had a fully functioning episcopal hierarchy that was in full accord with the Vatican.
During the early postwar years, tensions were high. The Catholic Church as a whole and particularly the bishops resisted both the East German state and Marxist ideology.
The state allowed the bishops to lodge protests, which they did on issues such as abortion. After the Church did fairly well in integrating Catholic exiles from lands to the east which mostly became part of Poland and in adjusting its institutional structures to meet the needs of a church within an officially atheist society.
This meant an increasingly hierarchical church structure, whereas in the area of religious education, press, and youth organisations, a system of temporary staff was developed, one that took into account the special situation of Caritas , a Catholic charity organisation.
By , therefore, there existed a Catholic subsociety that was well adjusted to prevailing specific conditions and capable of maintaining Catholic identity.
With a generational change in the episcopacy taking place in the early s, the state hoped for better relations with the new bishops, but the new bishops instead began holding unauthorised mass meetings, promoting international ties in discussions with theologians abroad, and hosting ecumenical conferences.
The new bishops became less politically oriented and more involved in pastoral care and attention to spiritual concerns. The government responded by limiting international contacts for bishops.
GDR culture and politics were limited by the harsh censorship. The Puhdys and Karat were some of the most popular mainstream bands in East Germany.
Like most mainstream acts, they appeared in popular youth magazines such as Neues Leben and Magazin. Other popular rock bands were Wir , City , Silly and Pankow.
Schlager , which was very popular in the west, also gained a foothold early on in East Germany, and numerous musicians, such as Gerd Christian , Uwe Jensen , and Hartmut Schulze-Gerlach gained national fame.
From to , an international schlager festival was held in Rostock , garnering participants from between 18 and 22 countries each year. Bands and singers from other Communist countries were popular, e.
Czerwone Gitary from Poland known as the Rote Gitarren. West German television and radio could be received in many parts of the East. The Western influence led to the formation of more "underground" groups with a decisively western-oriented sound.
Additionally, hip hop culture reached the ears of the East German youth. With videos such as Beat Street and Wild Style , young East Germans were able to develop a hip hop culture of their own.
The entire street culture surrounding rap entered the region and became an outlet for oppressed youth.
The government of the GDR was invested in both promoting the tradition of German classical music , and in supporting composers to write new works in that tradition.
The birthplace of Johann Sebastian Bach — , Eisenach , was rendered as a museum about him, featuring more than three hundred instruments, which, in , received some 70, visitors.
In Leipzig, the Bach archive contains his compositions and correspondence and recordings of his music. East German theatre was originally dominated by Bertolt Brecht , who brought back many artists out of exile and reopened the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm with his Berliner Ensemble.
In the s, a parallel theatre scene sprung up, creating theatre "outside of Berlin" in which artists played at provincial theatres.
Theatre and cabaret had high status in the GDR, which allowed it to be very pro-active. This often brought it into confrontation with the state. Benno Besson once said, "In contrast to artists in the west, they took us seriously, we had a bearing.
The Friedrichstadt-Palast in Berlin is the last major building erected by the GDR, making it an exceptional architectural testimony to how Germany overcame of its former division.
The film industry was remarkable for its production of Ostern , or Western-like movies. Native Americans in these films often took the role of displaced people who fight for their rights, in contrast to the American westerns of the time, where Native Americans were often either not mentioned at all or are portrayed as the villains.
Yugoslavians were often cast as the Native Americans because of the small number of Native Americans in Europe. He became an honorary Sioux chief when he visited the United States in the s, and the television crew accompanying him showed the tribe one of his movies.
American actor and singer Dean Reed , an expatriate who lived in East Germany, also starred in several films. These films were part of the phenomenon of Europe producing alternative films about the colonization of America.
Cinemas in the GDR also showed foreign films. Czechoslovak and Polish productions were more common, but certain western movies were shown, though the numbers of these were limited because it cost foreign exchange to buy the licences.
Further, movies representing or glorifying capitalist ideology were not bought. Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, several movies depicting life in the GDR have been critically acclaimed.
Go for Zucker by Dani Levi. Each film is heavily infused with cultural nuances unique to life in the GDR. East Germany was very successful in the sports of cycling , weight-lifting , swimming, gymnastics, track and field, boxing , ice skating , and winter sports.
The success is attributed to the leadership of Dr. Manfred Hoeppner which started in the late s. Another supporting reason was doping in East Germany , especially with anabolic steroids, the most detected doping substances in IOC -accredited laboratories for many years.
Sport teachers at school were encouraged to look for certain talents in children ages 6 to 10 years old. For older pupils it was possible to attend grammar schools with a focus on sports for example sailing, football and swimming.
This policy was also used for talented pupils with regard to music or mathematics. Sports clubs were highly subsidized, especially sports in which it was possible to get international fame.
For example, the major leagues for ice hockey and basketball just included 2 teams each. Football was the most popular sport. Club football teams such as Dynamo Dresden , 1.
Many East German players such as Matthias Sammer and Ulf Kirsten became integral parts of the reunified national football team. Other sports enjoyed great popularity like figure skating, especially because of sportspeople like Katarina Witt.
Television and radio in East Germany were state-run industries; the Rundfunk der DDR was the official radio broadcasting organisation from until unification.
Reception of Western broadcasts was widespread. By the mids, East Germany possessed a well-developed communications system.
There were approximately 3. An unusual feature of the telephone network was that, in most cases, direct distance dialing for long-distance calls was not possible.
Although area codes were assigned to all major towns and cities, they were only used for switching international calls. Instead, each location had its own list of dialing codes with shorter codes for local calls and longer codes for long-distance calls.
After unification, the existing network was largely replaced, and area codes and dialing became standardised. In this state, each person had a place.
All children could attend school free of charge, they received vocational training or studied, and were guaranteed a job after training.
Work was more than just a means to earn money. Men and women received equal pay for equal work and performance. Equality for women was not just on paper.
Care for children and the elderly was the law. Medical care was free, cultural and leisure activities affordable.
Social security was a matter of course. We knew no beggars or homelessness. There was a sense of solidarity. People felt responsible not only for themselves, but worked in various democratic bodies on the basis of common interests.
Conceptualizing the GDR as a dictatorship has become widely accepted, while the meaning of the concept dictatorship varies.
Massive evidence has been collected that proves the repressive, undemocratic, illiberal, nonpluralistic character of the GDR regime and its ruling party.
Unemployment and homelessness, which had been minimal during the communist era, grew and quickly became widespread; this, as well as the closures of countless factories and other workplaces in the east, fostered a growing sense that East Germans were being ignored or neglected by the federal government.
In addition, many east German women found the west more appealing, and left the region never to return, this left a lot of single and indigent men behind with little skills nor cognitive abilities.
These and other effects of unification led many East Germans to begin to think of themselves more strongly as "East" Germans rather than as simply "Germans".
In many former GDR citizens this produced a longing for some aspects of the former East Germany, such as full employment and other perceived benefits of the GDR state, termed " Ostalgie " a blend of Ost "east" and Nostalgie "nostalgia" and depicted in the Wolfgang Becker film Goodbye Lenin!
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see GDR disambiguation. This article is about the country that existed from to For the historical eastern provinces, see Former eastern territories of Germany.
For the modern east of Germany, see New states of Germany. For a group of extinct Germanic languages, see East Germanic languages. Workers of the world, unite!
Auferstanden aus Ruinen English: The territory of the German Democratic Republic from its creation on 7 October until its dissolution on 3 October East German mark — , officially named: The initial flag of East Germany adopted in was identical to that of West Germany.
In , the East German government issued a new version of the flag bearing the national emblem, serving to distinguish East from West.
France , United Kingdom and the United States. History of East Germany. Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to Somali Democratic Republic to Forest Brothers in Lithuania in Latvia in Estonia.
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