Ausrufer: Die Yobidashi sind die "Mädchen für alles" im Sumo. Sie rufen nicht nur die Kämpfer in den Ring, sie überwachen zudem den Bau des Kampfpodestes. Information about Banzuke (the Sumo ranking chart). 3. Jan. Die Ringer gehören zu einem der 40 Sumo-Ställe und werden in einer Sumo- Rangliste (Banzuke) eingeteilt, die nach jedem Turnier.
Some shrines carry out forms of ritual dance where a human is said to wrestle with a kami , a Shinto divine spirit. It was an important ritual at the imperial court, where representatives of each province were ordered to attend the contest at the court and fight.
The contestants were required to pay for their travel themselves. The contest was known as sumai no sechie , or "sumai party". A ring, defined as something other than simply the area given to the wrestlers by spectators, is also believed to have come into being in the 16th century as a result of a tournament organized by the then principal warlord in Japan, Oda Nobunaga.
At this point, wrestlers would wear loose loincloths rather than the much stiffer mawashi wrestling belts of today. Most of the rest of the current forms within the sport developed in the early Edo period.
Western Japan also had its own sumo venues and tournaments in this period, with the most prominent center being in Osaka. Also in this period, the Sumo Association began expanding to venues in western Japan again, reaching a total of six tournaments a year by , with half of them in Kuramae.
The winner of a sumo bout is generally either the first wrestler to force his opponent to step out of the ring, or the first wrestler to force his opponent to touch the ground with any part of his body other than the bottom of his feet.
Also, a number of other less common rules can be used to determine the winner. For example, a wrestler using an illegal technique kinjite automatically loses, as does one whose mawashi belt comes completely undone.
A wrestler failing to show up for his bout even if due to prior injury also automatically loses fusenpai. Bouts consist solely of a single round and often last only a few seconds, as usually one wrestler is quickly ousted from the circle or thrown to the ground.
However, they can occasionally last for several minutes. Each match is preceded by an elaborate ceremonial ritual. Traditionally, sumo wrestlers are renowned for their great girth and body mass, which is often a winning factor in sumo.
No weight divisions are used in professional sumo; a wrestler can sometimes face an opponent twice his own weight.
However, with superior technique, smaller wrestlers can control and defeat much larger opponents. The judges outside the ring, who sit at eye level the " shimpan " may convene a conference in the middle of the ring, called a " mono-ii ".
This is done if the judges decide that the decision over who won the bout needs to be reviewed; for example, if both sumotori appear to touch the ground or step out of the ring at the same time.
In these cases, sometimes video is reviewed to see what happened. Once a decision is made, the chief judge will announce the decision to the spectators and the wrestlers alike.
On rare occasions the referee or judges may award the win to the wrestler who touched the ground first. The losing wrestler is referred to as being shini-tai "dead body" in this case.
At the center are two white lines, the shikiri-sen , behind which the wrestlers position themselves at the start of the bout. Women are traditionally forbidden from entering or touching the ring.
Professional sumo is organized by the Japan Sumo Association. Most practicing wrestlers are members of a training stable or heya run by one of the oyakata , who is the stablemaster for the wrestlers under him.
In , 43 training stables hosted wrestlers. Often, wrestlers have little choice in their names, which are given to them by their trainers or stablemasters , or by a supporter or family member who encouraged them into the sport.
This is particularly true of foreign-born wrestlers. A wrestler may change his wrestling name during his career, with some wrestlers changing theirs several times.
Sumo wrestling is a strict hierarchy based on sporting merit. The wrestlers are ranked according to a system that dates back to the Edo period.
Wrestlers are promoted or demoted according to their performance in six official tournaments held throughout the year. A carefully prepared banzuke listing the full hierarchy is published two weeks prior to each sumo tournament.
In addition to the professional tournaments, exhibition competitions are held at regular intervals every year in Japan, and roughly once every two years, the top-ranked wrestlers visit a foreign country for such exhibitions.
Rank is determined only by performance in grand sumo tournaments or honbasho. The six divisions in sumo are: Wrestlers enter sumo in the lowest jonokuchi division and, ability permitting, work their way up to the top division.
A broad demarcation in the sumo world can be seen between the wrestlers in the top two divisions known as sekitori and those in the four lower divisions, known commonly by the more generic term rikishi.
The ranks receive different levels of compensation, privileges, and status. The topmost makuuchi division receives the most attention from fans and has the most complex hierarchy.
The majority of wrestlers are maegashira and are ranked from the highest level 1 down to about 16 or In each rank are two wrestlers, the higher rank is designated as "east" and the lower as "west", so the list goes 1 east, 1 west, 2 east, 2 west, etc.
At the pinnacle of the ranking system is the rank of yokozuna. Yokozuna , or grand champions, are generally expected to compete for and to win the top division tournament title on a regular basis, hence the promotion criteria for yokozuna are very strict.
In antiquity, sumo was solely a Japanese sport. Since the s, however, the number of foreign-born sumo wrestlers has gradually increased. In the beginning of this period, these few foreign wrestlers were listed as Japanese, but particularly since the s, a number of high-profile foreign-born wrestlers became well-known, and in more recent years have even come to dominate in the highest ranks.
This and other issues eventually led the Sumo Association to limit the number of foreigners allowed to one in each stable.
Since , six Grand Sumo tournaments Japanese: Each tournament begins on a Sunday and runs for 15 days, ending also on a Sunday. Each day is structured so that the highest-ranked contestants compete at the end of the day.
If two wrestlers are tied for the top, they wrestle each other and the winner takes the title. Three-way ties for a championship are rare, at least in the top division.
In these cases, the three wrestle each other in pairs with the first to win two in a row take the tournament. More complex systems for championship playoffs involving four or more wrestlers also exist, but these are usually only seen in determining the winner of one of the lower divisions.
The matchups for each day of the tournament are announced a day in advance. They are determined by the sumo elders who are members of the judging division of the Sumo Association.
As many more wrestlers are in each division than matchups during the tournament, each wrestler only competes against a selection of opponents from the same division, though small overlaps can occur between two divisions.
For example, in the lower divisions, wrestlers with the same record in a tournament are generally matched up with each other and the last matchups often involve undefeated wrestlers competing against each other, even if they are from opposite ends of the division.
Similarly, more highly ranked wrestlers with very poor records may find themselves fighting wrestlers much further down the division. Traditionally, on the final day, the last three bouts of the tournament are between the top six ranked wrestlers, with the top two competing in the final matchup, unless injuries during the tournament prevent this.
Certain match-ups are prohibited in regular tournament play. Makuuchi literally means "inside the curtain", a reference to the early period of professional sumo, when there was a curtained-off area reserved for the top ranked wrestlers, to sit before appearing for their bouts.
Wrestlers are considered for promotion or demotion in rank before each grand tournament according to their performance in the one previous.
Generally, a greater number of wins than losses kachi-koshi results in a promotion, and the reverse make-koshi results in demotion.
There are stricter criteria for promotion to the top two ranks, which are also privileged when considered for demotion. There must be at least one sekiwake and komusubi on each side of the banzuke , normally two total, but there may be more.
Any wrestler who reaches one of them is entitled to purchase one of the membership shares in the Japan Sumo Association , regardless of the total number of tournaments they have spent in the top makuuchi division.
They may be called on to represent all sumo wrestlers on certain occasions. Similarly they may be called to assist in welcoming a VIP, such as the Emperor , to the arena.
The former group have special promotion criteria and higher salaries, and have additional perks such as a higher number of junior wrestlers to assist them, an entitlement to park in the Sumo Association compound and voting rights in the election for Association directors.
They are expected to represent wrestler views to the Association, assist in advertising events and meet event sponsors.
The rope is similar to the shimenawa used to mark off sacred areas in Shinto , and like the shimenawa it serves to purify and mark off its content.
As of January , a total of 72 sumo wrestlers have earned the rank of yokozuna. The birth of the rank of yokozuna is unclear, and there are two competing legends.
According to one, a 9th-century wrestler named Hajikami tied a shimenawa around his waist as a handicap and dared any to touch it, creating sumo as it is now known in the process.
According to the other, legendary wrestler Akashi Shiganosuke tied the shimenawa around his waist in as a sign of respect when visiting the Emperor, and was posthumously awarded the title for the first time.
These two wrestlers were both awarded yokozuna licences by the prominent Yoshida family. Thus there are a number of early wrestlers who were, by modern standards, yokozuna in name only.
At first, the Yoshida family and a rival family, Gojo, fought for the right to award a wrestler a yokozuna licence. The first yokozuna promoted by the Sumo Association was the 41st yokozuna Chiyonoyama Masanobu.
There are no absolute criteria, nor is there a set quota: The power and skill aspects are usually considered with reference to recent tournament performance.
Thus a consistent high level of performance is required. Winning two tournaments with a poor performance between them is not usually sufficient.
The rules are not set in stone and hence in reaching their conclusion the Yokozuna Deliberation Council and Sumo Association can interpret the criteria more leniently or strictly and also take into account other factors, such as total number of tournament victories, the quality of the wins and whether the losses show any serious vulnerabilities.
The issue of hinkaku dignity and grace is more contentious, as it is essentially a subjective issue. In the case of Konishiki, other issues such as his weight were also cited.
For example, Chiyonoyama in the s was not immediately promoted due to his relative youth despite winning consecutive tournaments, although he later achieved the top rank.
Futahaguro eventually retired after only one and a half years at the top rank and became the only yokozuna in sumo history ever to retire without having won at least one top division championship.
Elevation to yokozuna rank is a multi-stage process. After a tournament, the Yokozuna Deliberation Council, a body of lay people that is, not former sumo wrestlers who are appointed by the Japan Sumo Association to provide an independent quality control on yokozuna promotion, meet and discuss the performance of the top-ranked wrestlers.
Their recommendation is then passed to the Judging division and then the Board of Directors of the Sumo Association who make the final decision.
If a wrestler is deemed to have met the criteria then he will be visited in his training stable by a member of the Sumo Association Board of Directors who will formally give him the news.
In the following days a tsuna or ceremonial rope will then be made in his stable and he will practice the ring entrance ceremony with advice from a previous or current yokozuna.
Finally, he will have his inaugural ceremonial ring entry ceremony held at Meiji Shrine in Tokyo, which is usually completed within a couple of weeks of the tournament end.
When a new rikishi enters professional sumo, he will usually enter the sport at the age of 16 ranked as a low Jonokuchi.
Some aspiring rikishi choose not to become professionals at 16, rather they develop their sumo technique during junior high, high school, and college.
Once graduating from college, they can begin their professional careers at the Makushita 15 level if their accomplishments during their amateur days prove them worthy of this rank.
There is only one method whereby a rikishi can rise through the sumo ranks: Major tournaments, called hon-basho or basho for short , occur six times a year in the odd months.
A hon-basho lasts 15 days spanning the two middle weeks of the month. It begins on a Sunday and ends on the Sunday two weeks later.
Rikishi from the top two divisions compete everyday of the tournament; whereas, the rikishi in the four lower divisions compete seven of the 15 days.
Rikishi in the four lower divisions will wrestle an opponent who has the same record as himself. For example, if rikishi A is after his first five bouts, his next opponent will also have the same record.
In this way, a rikishi cannot rise to the top of his division by consistently beating up on lesser opponents. Each division produces an eventual champion for the tournament.
In order to be crowned champion for the four lower ranks, a rikishi usually has to win all seven of his bouts. If two or more rikishi are tied at the end of the tournament, they will have a playoff to determine the winner.
As for the two top divisions, the rikishi with the best record at the end of the tournament is crowned the winner. If two or more rikishi are tied at the end of 15 days, they will have a playoff to determine the winner.
It is extremely difficult to go in the top two divisions, although it has been done. Makuuchi, the top division in the sport, consists of different levels.
The highest level a rikishi can achieve is called Yokozuna, or Grand Champion.
rangliste sumo - shareDamals wog er weniger als 63 Kilogramm. Balkon-Sitze liegen auf der 1. Führende Nationen sind hier neben Japan vor allem Deutschland sowie diverse osteuropäische Staaten. Während des Kampfes sind die Kontrahenten nur mit dem sog. Dort stampfen sie, um ihre Muskeln zu stärken und vertreiben damit böse Geister aus dem Ring. Für alle Sumo-Kämpfe, unabhängig davon, ob Meister im dohyo stehen oder nicht, sind 5 Schiedsrichter erforderlich. Den Höhepunkt eines jeden Tages bilden die Kämpfe der yokozuna. Er hält laut Wikipedia auch den Rekord von 86 gewonnenen Kämpfen in einer einzigen Saison. Der Beginn eines Kampfes wird von einer Reihe von traditionellen Zeremonie begleitet.
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